Telecommunications Power Solutions
Looking for reliable power solutions? Want to go from utilities' 2-to-3-nines to 5-nines, from 99%-99.9% uptime to 99.999% uptime (as is the norm for telecommunications networks)?
"3 Nines" (e.g.)
This is why your phones
|Graphic from Introduction
to DC Power (PDF) - a white paper by J. Sarkinen.
Note: Graphic above is copyright protected and require permission for reuse.
Utility, The Grid - Utilities in the industrialized world doesn't provide better than 3-Nines uptime, sometime even 2-Nines are mentioned...
◗ 1965: Northeast Blackout of 1965 - 25 million people, North America
◗ 1999: 90 million people affected for hours in Brazil, South America (src: List of power outages)
◗ 2003: Northeast Blackout of 2003 - 50 million people affected North America
◗ 2003: 2003 Italy blackout - 56 million people in Italy, Europe
◗ 2005: 100 million people for 7 hrs on Java Island, South Pacific, 2005 Java-Bali Blackout
Article (brief) from Electronic Design, Nov 2008:
Power Grid Presents Great Market Opportunity
"The bad news is that today’s power grid is wasteful, costly, inefficient, and dumb, according to Lux Research. But, according to Lux’s research found in “Alternative Power and Energy Storage State of the Market Q4 2008: Weaving the $65 Billion Power Web,” the good news is that the advent of distributed generation, distributed storage, and distributed intelligence will change power infrastructure into an intelligent and more nimble power web" (2008-11-21) electronicdesign.com/Articles/Index.cfm?ArticleID=20184.
AC Power [System] - depending on site complexity and size, the site power solution could include components for conditioning of incoming AC and AC distribution.
DC Power System - the core of any telecommunications power solution, with rectifiers (AC/DC), connection of backup power, DC distribution and power system controller
Distribution - distribution panels with breakers, fuses, terminals
DC Distribution (part of DC Power System) - (Primary) loads using +24VDC or -48VDC - the common voltages for telecommunications systems.
Converters (DC/DC) - For equipment that require a different voltage than the primary voltage (+24VDC or -48VDC): add converter(s) for other voltages.
Inverters (DC/AC) - When you want to use the reliability of the DC power system including backup power also for AC-powered loads (e.g. computers).
UPS (AC/AC) - Uninteruptible Power Supply take AC in and provide AC out. More for traditional data centers and computer systems.
Backup & Storage Solutions - Batteries in different flavors and technologies, fuel cells, alternative energy sources, ... to provide backup power for hours of operations during utilities outage.
Security, Access System - Solutions for secure access to premises.
Fire Detection & Suppression System - Detection of fire and suppression systems like sprinklers.
Monitoring and Control - Overall, (remote) monitoring and control is critical to reach 5-Nines or better.
- management (lib) - more on network (element-, ... ) managenent.
- Controllers - more on power system controllers.
Contact us for more information and discussions.
Generation > Transportation > Distribution > Consumption / Use
Transformation: Voltage levels, number of phases, AC - DC, ...
◗ Dependability ◗ Redundancy ◗ Reliability ◗ Security
Electrical Terminology: ◗ Voltage ◗ Current ◗ Impedance ◗ Power - Real Power (W), Apparent Power (VA), Reactive Power (VAR)
Power Factor (value between 0 and 1) = P / S,
[Learn more at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_factor]
Electrical, Mechanical, Thermal